Causes of the Russian Revolution (1917)
Nihilism, Anarchism and Marxism
Nihilism was a theory of revolution popular among Russian extremists until the fall of the Czarist government (1917); Nihilism stressed the need to destroy existing economic and social institutions. Even though Nihilists were not without constructive programmes, direct action, such as assassination and arson, was their main characteristic. The assassination of Czar Alexander II was one of the results of such terrorist activities.
Anarchism, is the theory that equality and justice are to be sought through the abolition of the state. The main theme of anarchist thought is the belief that society is natural and that people are good but are corrupted by artificial institutions.
Marxism, is the economic and political philosophy started by Karl Marx. It is also known as scientific socialism. Marxism has had a profound impact on contemporary culture; modern communism is based on it.