Botany – Points to Remember

  • Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen are considered as framework elements. They constitute an essential part of Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats, the basic macromolecules of all living systems.
  • Light reaction takes place in the grana and dark reaction takes place in the Stroma of chloroplast. Synthesis of ATP in the chloroplast utilizing light energy is called Photophosphorylation.
  • Glycolysis is a common pathway for aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It involves breakdown of respiratory substrate into pyruvic acid.
  • The cytokinins are plant hormones which act primarily on cell division. It was first isolated by Miller and his coworkers in USA.
  • The growth in length of plants can be measured by an instrument called Lever or Arc Auxanometer.
  • Chloroplasts function as sites of photosynthetic activity.
  • Auxins were discovered by Went.
  • Auxins are responsible for apical dominance.
  • Gibberellin causes bolting in plants.
  • Ethylene is a fruit ripening hormone.
  • Mitochondria is the seat of cellular respiration.
  • Glycolysis is also called as EMP pathway.
  • Energy is stored in the form of ATP in cells.
  • Formation of ATP during electron trasnsport chain is called oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Splitting of water molecules during light reaction is called photolysis.
  • Dark reaction was discovered by Melvin Calvin.
  • Stomatal Transpiration accounts for maximum loss of water from the plant.
  • The adaptation in Opuntia to reduce transpiration is called phyllociade.
  • Chemical substances used to reduce transpiration are called antitranspirants.


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