The alloy steels are formed by alloying steel with some other metal or metals in different proportions. The addition of metals has a remarkable effect on the properties of steel. Some of the alloy steels made are stainless steel, tungsten steel, nickel steel, manganese steel, etc.
- Stainless steel:
It contains 8% nickel and 18% chromium. It is resistant to corrosion and has high tensile strength. Therefore it is used for making utensils, cutlery, automobile parts, surgical instruments, etc.
- Tungsten steel:
It contains 20% tungsten, 5% chromium and a little of vanadium. It acquires hardness on alloying with tungsten. It is used in making drilling tools and cutting tools.
- Nickel steel:
It contains 2% nickel. It is hard, resistant to corrosion and elastic. It has higher tensile strength than iron. It is used for making bicycle parts, automobile parts and aeroplane parts. If the percentage of nickel is 36, then the alloy is used for making scientific instruments. If the alloy contains 46% nickel, it is used in making radio valves.
- Manganese steel:
It contains 7-20% manganese. It is very hard and tough and resistant to wear and tear. It is used for making steel helmets, rock-crushing machinery, burglar proof safety lockers and rail road tracks.
- Silicon steel:
Silicon steel containing about 15% silicon is extremely hard and resistant to acids. It is used to make pipes for carrying acids. Silicon steel, containing 35% silicon is used for making transformers and electromagnets.
- Cobalt steel:
Steel containing upto 35% cobalt possesses exceptionally good magnetic properties. Hence, cobalt steel is used for making permanent magnets.
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