In 1905 Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal. The province was to be divided into two parts – East Bengal and Assam on one side and the rest of Bengal on other side. Though the object of the partition was given as administrative convenience, the actual reason was to disrupt Hindu – Muslim unity. This angered not only the extremists but also the moderates. The people of Bengal rose up in protest against the British Government. As the people were agitated the partition was revoked in 1911.
The national leaders organized Swadeshi and Boycot movements. The people were encouraged to boycott British goods. The Swadeshi movement encouraged the progress of Indian industries and the use of goods made in India. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee composed Vande Mataram,which became the national song of Bengal.