- An assembly language is a low-level programming language for computers, microprocessors, micro controllers, and other programmable devices.
- A program written in assembly language consists of a series of (mnemonic) processor instructions and meta-statements (known variously as directives, pseudo-instructions and pseudo-ops), comments and data.
- Machine language is a collection of binary digits or bits that the computer reads and interprets.
- FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, C/C++, Pascal are some examples for High-Level Programming Languages.
- The ability to recover and read deleted or damaged files from a criminal’s computer is an example of a law enforcement specialty called computer forensics.
- Firefox (Mozilla), Internet Explorer (Microsoft) and Chrome (Google) are the most popular browsers today.
- Surgeons can perform delicate operations by manipulating devices through computers instead of manually. This technology is known as robotics.
- Artificial intelligence (AI) is the science that attempts to produce machines that display the same type of intelligence that humans do.
- The term bit is short for binary digit.
- Linux, UNIX, Microsoft’s Windows, DOS, Vista, Windows 7 and Apple’s MacOS are some examples of computer operating systems.
- Hardware is any part of the computer that you can physically touch.
- Software is a set of computer programs used on a computer to help perform tasks.
- Supercomputers are specially designed computers that perform complex calculations extremely rapidly.
- The operating system controls the way in which the computer system functions and provides a means by which users can interact with the computer.
- HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol
- WWW (W3) – World Wide Web
- FORTRAN – Formula Translation / Translator
- BASIC – Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
- COBOL – Common Business Oriented Language
- FTP – Transfer Protocol
- TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
- SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
- POP – Post Office Protocol
- ENIAC – Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator
- DLL – Dynamic Link Library
- Facebook, Twitter, Orkut are some examples for social networking websites.
- PARAM is a series of supercomputers designed and assembled by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) in Pune, India. PARAM 8000, PARAM 8600, PARAM 9900, PARAM 10000, PARAM Padma, PARAM Yuva are the PARAM series supercomputers.
- Examples of input devices include the keyboard, mouse, modem, joystick, digitizing pen and tablet, microphone, touch screens, scanner, camera etc.
Examples of output devices include speakers, monitor, printers etc.
Examples of storage devices include the hard drives, floppy drives, tape drives, CD-ROM drives etc.
The earliest known device to record computations was the abacus. It dates back to ancient times and was invented by the Chinese.
John Napier discovered logarithms.
Charles Babbage, a British Mathematics professor, is regarded as the Father of Computers.
Charles Babbage designed and built a model of what was called the difference engine. Babbage then designed the analytic engine
In First Generation Computers (1951-1958) vacuum tubes are used in electronic circuits.
In Second Generation Computers (1959-1964) transistors are used for internal operations.
In Third Generation Computers (1965-1970) integrated circuits (Ics) replaced the transistors of the second generation machines.
Fourth Generation computers are the modern day computers. Introduction of microprocessors and microcomputers, Use of large scale integrated circuits.
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development.
- Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first Internet.
- Vinton Cerf is known as the father of the internet.
- Tim Berners–Lee – Inventor of the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1991.
- Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.
- The smallest amount of transfer is one bit. It holds the value of a 1, or a 0 (Binary Coding). Eight of these 1’s and zeros are called a byte.
- Commonly used memory terms:
1 bit = 1 or 0
4 bits = 1 nibble (often nybble or even nyble)
8 bits = 1 byte (B)
1024 bytes = 1 Kilobyte (KB)
1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte (MB)
1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte (GB)
1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte (TB)
- IBM introduced its first personal computer called the IBM PC in 1981.
- Facebook is a social networking service and Web site launched in February 2004.