Nobel Prize – Facts and 2011 Winners List
Every year since 1901 the Nobel Prize has been awarded for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and for Peace. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize. The first such prize was awarded in 1969. The Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo (Norway), while the other prizes are awarded in Stockholm (Sweden).
Four people have received two Nobel Prizes
- Marie Curie – Physics (1903) and Chemistry (1911)
- Linus Pauling – Chemistry (1954) and Peace (1962)
- John Bardeen – Physics Prize twice: in 1956 and in 1972
- Frederick Sanger – Chemistry Prize twice: in 1958 and in 1980
2011 Nobel Prize Winners List
- Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Reiss share the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics for their observations that type Ia supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
- The 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry goes to Daniel Shechtman of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology for the discovery of quasicrystals — infinite, non-repeating ordered materials.
- Bruce Beutler, Jules Hoffmann and Ralph Steinman share the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the complex workings of the immune system.
- The 2011 Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Tomas Transtromer, a Swedish poet whose surrealistic works about the mysteries of the human mind won him acclaim as one of the most important Scandinavian writers since World War II.
- Three women share Nobel Peace Prize 2011: The 2011 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Liberian peace activist Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman of Yemen for their work on women’s rights.
- Americans Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims won the Nobel economics prize for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy. Mr. Sargent is a professor at New York University and Mr. Sims is a professor at Princeton University.